The direct beneficiary is the institution and/or organisation that will benefit in the first instance from the outputs of the AFRA project. In general, the direct beneficiary is a department or a Centre that belongs to the Atomic Energy Commission or its equivalent in the AFRA Member State. It plays a paramount role in the transfer of the project outputs to the end-user through the national development programmes or available extension services.

The end-users are the people or group of people who are meant to benefit from the technology transfer or innovations developed under the AFRA project. They are the ultimate focus of the project, demonstrating end-results in terms of the practical realisation of communal benefits arising from this technology transfer. The end-users are, for example, farmers in the case of agricultural projects, patients in the case of human health projects and the population and the environment in the case of radiation protection projects.